Energy Conservation and Efficiency

Energy consumption

Adopting energy efficiency measures helps conserve scarce resources such as fossil fuels. Lower demand also lessens its impact on critical ecosystems while alleviating stress on the power grid.

There is a direct relationship between GDP per capita and energy consumption; as economies develop economically, their energy demands grow accordingly.

Energy Sources

Energy can come from many different sources, with fossil fuels like oil, natural gas and coal constituting most of our global energy requirements. Nuclear and renewables also play an important role; however, mining activities, drilling operations, transport logistics and electricity generation may have negative environmental or health repercussions that should be reduced through energy conservation measures and efficiency improvements.

Most countries are seeking a balance between energy needs and climate change concerns. Developing countries need energy-intensive industrialization projects in order to expand their economies while at the same time moving away from fossil fuel dependence toward renewables.

Ideal energy sources should be cheap, plentiful and clean – something we may never reach during our lifetimes – but energy companies continue to explore methods for improving production and use efficiency.

This data presents energy consumption using the “substitution method,” an approach intended to compensate for inefficiencies associated with fossil fuel and biomass conversion processes. This technique compares primary input equivalents from nuclear and modern renewable technologies with what would have occurred if burned at conventional power plants; industrial processes (like cement production), agriculture, land use change and waste consumption account for most primary energy consumption.

This table presents the share of each energy source in gross final energy consumption across each European Union member state in 2021. Sweden had by far the highest share, followed by Finland and Latvia. As a whole, EU consumption reached 21.8 %; this decrease can be explained by lifting restrictions related to pandemic control efforts but changes to legal basis and accounting methodology also had an impact.

Energy Efficiency

Energy efficiency measures can be utilized by businesses to decrease overall energy usage. These strategies include installing energy-saving appliances and upgrading equipment that uses less power as well as switching off devices when not needed or setting timers to do so. All of these efforts help businesses save money and lower carbon footprint, supporting corporate social responsibility goals.

Energy efficiency refers to performing the same work while using less electricity. This can be accomplished either by optimizing existing equipment or developing new technology that uses significantly less power for doing similar work. One common measure of energy efficiency is useful energy output per unit of input energy – expressed as a percentage – so higher scores indicate better energy performance.

Industries often consume enormous quantities of energy for manufacturing and resource extraction processes, which come from natural gas, petroleum fuels and electricity sources. Industrial energy efficiency offers one way to decrease this demand – saving potential varies widely depending on industry type.

Energy efficiency is one of the most cost-effective strategies to combat climate change, lower energy costs for both consumers and businesses, and increase U.S. competitiveness on global markets. Furthermore, it helps protect public health by decreasing air pollution that exacerbates respiratory and cardiovascular illnesses.

Energy-efficiency policies and programs often target specific groups, such as low-income households or business owners. Their purpose is to increase energy efficiency, encourage the adoption of cleaner technologies by offering incentives, removing barriers to implementation and providing incentives. Unfortunately, research indicates that many policies fall short of anticipated energy-savings due to hidden costs or misaligning incentives (Gillingham et al 2018). Therefore, ongoing studies into market interventions and energy-efficiency policy design is crucial to meeting this challenge head on.


Energy usage includes how much electricity is consumed by electronic devices like computers and televisions, heating, cooling and lighting devices as well as heating/cooling/lighting appliances in homes. The amount of electricity consumed varies based on a number of factors including home size/age/occupant count as well as type/brand of electrical appliances being used. Understanding your energy consumption is critical as one way to lower electric bill is reducing power usage – you can estimate this either by looking back over past bills or by counting how many watts appliances used per day (1,000= 1kilowatt = 1000Watt). To estimate your consumption you can calculate how many kilowatts of power consumed each day (note that 1kilowatt = 1000Watt).

Energy Consumption in Cities

Cities account for 75 percent of energy use worldwide and 80 percent of greenhouse gas emissions; this can be explained by access to energy infrastructure as well as high demands from industrialised economic sectors; in rural areas there tends to be lower energy demands.

Load profiles provide an important snapshot of a facility’s energy consumption, detailing when electricity was being consumed at different times throughout the day and year. Load profiles are useful when planning the sizing of renewable energy systems like batteries and photovoltaic panels or benchmarking against similar facilities.

An analysis of a country’s energy consumption can be seen by comparing its production to consumption. Depending on its fuel mix, production could either outstrip consumption or vice versa; further breakdown could include primary versus secondary sources, domestic versus overseas, renewable and non-renewable resources, renewable vs non-renewables etc. By studying different countries’ energy mixes it becomes clear how each uses their resources more efficiently than others.

Natural Gas

Natural gas, an odorless mixture of hydrocarbon gases (mainly methane) with trace amounts of nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide and water vapor, is one of Earth’s cleanest fossil fuels. Over millions of years, natural gas is produced organically through decomposition of plant and animal matter that has become trapped beneath sediment layers by intense heat and pressure; under intense pressure this organic material breaks down into simpler hydrocarbon molecules which migrate through fissures or fractures in rocks until eventually becoming trapped by impermeable materials such as shale, salt or clay; this deposit forms natural gas reservoirs.

Sedimentary basins rich with natural gas can be found around the world, from Saudi Arabia’s deserts to Venezuelan tropics to Alaska’s Arctic region. Natural gas is typically extracted through wells in these basins by drilling down to their shale cap before pumping through pipelines into storage facilities for delivery and use as energy. When compared with gasoline, natural gas produces significantly fewer greenhouse gas emissions – making it an energy source with reduced environmental impact.

About one-third of natural gas production goes toward electric power generation, while two-thirds is consumed for heating, cooking and industrial uses in residential and commercial settings as well as powering compressors that transport it via transmission/distribution pipelines.

In 2022, the United States boasted 490,850 kilometers (305,000 miles) of interstate and intrastate natural gas pipelines, of which about 38% was consumed by electricity consumers; transportation sectors accounted for an additional 4%.


Transportation accounts for a considerable portion of global energy consumption. It encompasses road transport (passenger cars, trucks and buses), rail transport, waterway shipping and air travel as means for moving people and goods between places. Energy consumption per mode varies significantly: bicycles may consume 100kJ per kilometre while aircraft can use 10s of MegaJoules/km.

Energy efficiency in transportation, also referred to as energy intensity, measures the useful travelled distance of passengers or goods divided by total energy input into transport propulsion means. It typically correlates to operating costs ($/km) and environmental emissions, and may be expressed either as litres/gallons consumed per hour for propulsion powered by electricity, or in terms of kWh consumed per hour if propulsion uses electricity as its propulsion source.

Due to technological advancements, energy consumption in the transportation sector has declined substantially in the past decade. Fuel efficiency improvements allow vehicles to travel further on less energy consumption – helping fleet managers reduce operating and maintenance costs and fuel purchases, and ultimately leading to lower fuel purchases overall.

However, it is essential to recognize the wider implications of using fossil fuels in transportation because decarbonization of this sector is vital for combatting climate change. With that goal in mind, focus should now be put on developing technologies to lower carbon dioxide emissions from transportation such as electric vehicles that can be recharged using renewable sources as well as improving fuel economy and aerodynamic design. Furthermore, rail and maritime transport should play a central role in creating future low-carbon transportation networks.